Updated: Jun 11, 2022
Plastic surgery is a great way to improve your appearance, and very popular procedure for those who want to become more attractive. If you want to look like someone famous, then you should definitely get a plastic surgery on yourself. But there is a lot more to it than just having a great-looking face or body. Plastic surgeries sometimes make good news headlines, and inspire people to lead better and fulfilled lives. There are different types of plastic surgery available, each with its own pros and cons, and some of them make patients feel truly fulfilled and happy.
Do you know what type of plastic surgery you need?
Honestly, most top plastic surgeons consider plastic surgery to be a very personal decision. Every person has their own opinion on the pros and cons of plastic surgery and the risks involved. Knowing what you need to consider before deciding which type of plastic surgery would be best for you will help you make a better decision. To help out people, some perform plastic surgery on a weekend. Plastic surgery innovations are changing modern day practice, with tissue engineering and regenerative medicine poised to make a big difference in people's lives. This article is here to help you decide whether or not you'd like to consider a plastic surgery on yourself.
What are the different types of facial plastic surgery?
Alternatively known as eyelid correction, it aims to reshape the eyelids. With age, the skin becomes saggy and the upper lids may droop or cover and the lower lids may droop. Eyelid surgery can be functional, cosmetic, or both. It usually involves removing or moving excess skin and fat, and the procedure can strengthen the surrounding muscles and tendons. Surgery can change the shape of the face or tighten the skin.
In rhinoplasty, also called a “nose job,” the surgeon reshapes the patient’s nose to improve its appearance and often for breathing. It may include reshaping the tip and reducing the bony prominence at the top of the nose. Plastic surgeons can accomplish it through small incisions, usually well hidden in the nostrils. Surgeons do not recommend rhinoplasty until the patient is at least 15 years old to allow full growth of the nasal cartilages and bones.
Also called ear surgery, it treats prominent or deformed ears by surgically “fixing” the ear closer to the head with stitches, reshaping the cartilage, or both the procedures together. Correction of one or both ears are possible in the same sitting. Surgeons usually perform otoplasty after the age of 5 or 6, as the ears essentially reach an adult size at that age.
Also known as a rhytidectomy, plastic surgeons aim to remove facial wrinkles surgically and tighten the facial skin to get a more youthful appearance. Usually, they place the incision in front of and behind the ears, up to the hairline in the temple area. They lift the skin from the deeper facial tissue, reapply them more firmly, and remove the excessive amounts of skin. Then, they close the incisions with sutures. They may also tighten the deeper tissues on the face and neck. Plastic surgeons can perform an eyelid surgery, also called blepharoplasty, at the same time.
or forehead lift, aims to eliminate the signs of aging by lifting droopy eyebrows, eliminating forehead wrinkles (also known as worry lines). Surgeons often do it alongside other cosmetic procedures to achieve a more harmonious appearance.
It aims to make the chin more prominent and provide a better balance between facial features. Plastic surgeons may perform it at the same time as rhinoplasty. This decision depends upon the measurements taken before the surgery. They can do it with a prosthetic implant or by manipulating the jawbone.
Alternatively known as cheek augmentation, it can make cheekbones more prominent. This results in triangulation of the face when exposed to bright lights, and make your face appear more contoured, model-like and attractive.
What are the different types of cosmetic surgery of the body?
Several cosmetic surgery procedures are performed over the body. All of them aim to improve your bodily appearance.
Also called suction-assisted lipectomy, it uses thin cannulas or hollow metallic tubes to suck out fat from various parts of the body. The usual sites are the abdomen, thighs, hips, buttocks, back of the arms and neck. Plastic surgeons can also use liposuction for breast reduction in men.
The tools used in liposuction include standard, ultrasonic, mechanical, and laser devices. All of them suck out fat through different tubes.
To avoid complications, there is a limit to the amount of fat that the surgeon can safely remove, depending on whether the patient gets discharged immediately after surgery, or remains or hospitalized for a longer duration.
We should not design or consider liposuction as a weight loss procedure. When it applies to the right patient, it aims to improve contours and reduce limited fat deposits.
Complications are rare but possible. These include accumulation of blood under the skin known as hematoma, infection, sensory changes, allergic reactions, damage to underlying structures, and unsatisfactory results.
A good plastic surgeon would discuss these with you before your surgery. Liposuction does not reduce the risk of developing diabetes, heart disease, or high blood pressure.
Also called “tummy tuck”, it reshapes and tightens the abdomen. In order to tighten the muscle and fascia of the abdominal wall, plastic surgeons remove excess skin and fat from the middle and lower abdomen. This may be appropriate after pregnancy or after losing a lot of weight.
It enhances the appearance of the buttocks by enlarging it. The surgeon will graft fat from another part of the patient’s body using liposuction and call this the ‘Brazilian Butt Lift’.
Plastic surgeons also place silicone implants on the buttocks when required for treating their patients. They remove excess skin on the hips, buttocks and thighs with a butt lift or lower body lift, to tighten and lift their profile, while removing excess fat and skin.
They often combine these procedures with a tummy tuck, for example in patients who have lost significant weight after bariatric or weight loss surgery.
Labiaplasty (including labia minora or labia majora reduction) is a reduction surgery of the labia majora or labia minora of the vulva, an important part of the female genitalia. It reduces an elongated labia, often as a component of a vaginal plastic surgery.
There is a lack of scientific evidence to guide gynaecological surgeons on the safety and effectiveness of cosmetic vaginal procedures. Such surgeries are better handled by plastic surgeons.
What are the most common types of breast plastic surgery?
Women can have breast surgery to improve their body shape. Surgeons perform plastic surgery on the breasts when a woman feels that her breasts are too small, if one breast is larger than the other, or if her breasts have changed after pregnancy or breastfeeding. Some older women opt for this treatment when the breasts sag as the skin loses its elasticity with advanced age.
Mammoplasty procedures are of different types, and the most common types of breast plastic surgery may include:
Also called breast enlargement, it is traditionally performed using saline or silicone gel prostheses and now sometimes with fat grafting. The main purpose of breast augmentation is more about enhancing the appearance.
For some women, breast augmentation can boost their self-esteem and improve their sensitivities about their sexuality. However, some problems may exist within their perceptions. In such cases, doctors encourage women to seek counselling first.
Reducing the size of large breasts can help relieve physical discomfort, like neck pain, shoulder pain, and repeated skin infections in the underside of the breasts.
Breast reduction can also reduce the risk of breast cancer in women at high risk of the cancerous disease.
Also called mastopexy, it involves removing skin and glandular tissue to shrink the breasts and rearranging the remaining tissue to make the breast appear upright. Depending on how much volume the patient has lost or desired, plastic surgeons may combine mastopexy with an implant placement.
Although mastopexy may somewhat resemble a breast reduction surgery, which involves removing a much larger amount of tissue, major insurance companies rarely cover it because they do not consider it to be medically necessary.
Male Breast Reduction.
Male breast reduction in men treats gynecomastia, which is the enlargement of breast tissue in men. Plastic surgeons perform it along with liposuction and small excisional surgeries through smaller scars that are hidden around the nipple and areola.
What are the different types of non-surgical cosmetic procedures and their uses?
Minimally invasive cosmetic treatments include the use of needles and lights and lasers to stimulate the skin, and do not involve cuts and stitches typical of plastic surgery. They can be chemical peels, dermal fillers, botox injections, micro needling, hair grafting, intense pulse light, and laser therapy.
Peels are helpful in treating acne, chickenpox, and different types of scarring or wrinkles. Different types of active ingredients within it help in stimulating skin regeneration. A light or superficial peel contains different types of Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHA) such as lactic, glycolic, or fruit-derived acids to treat the outer layers of the skin. It is good for young skin or fine lines. It is not as deep as other types of peels, so the recovery time is minimal. A medium peel contains TCA (trichloroacetic acid) in various concentrations. It is good for older skin or those who want deeper penetration of the skin. Healing and pain are more than lighter peels. Some redness and scaling may result and last for several days or weeks. A deep peel or phenol peel goes much deeper than the light or medium peel. Therefore, it has the greatest effect on skin rejuvenation, but also has the longest healing time and can cause scarring and skin discoloration.
Botox is the brand name for a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum), which was first approved by the FDA in the 1980s for muscle spasms. Nowadays, it is extensively used to treat wrinkles and facial folds. It works by blocking the signal going from the nerves to the injected muscles. The injected muscle can no longer contract or contract as strongly as before, resulting in a controlled relaxation of the muscles. USFDA has approved it to treat the forehead frown lines, crow’s feet (which are lines surrounding the eyes), and excessive sweating of the underarms and hands. Besides “Botox”, there are several other brands of botulinum toxin that are now commercially available.
Soft tissue fillers or dermal fillers are FDA-approved medical device implants to create a smoother, fuller appearance on the face. They can treat nasolabial folds, cheeks and lips and to increase the volume of the back of the hand. They can also reduce wrinkles, lines and scars and strengthen soft tissue lines. They are not permanent, and the body mechanisms break them down. So, it may require repeated treatments to maintain the effect. Commercially available products include hyaluronic acid, poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), calcium hydroxyapatite, and polymethylmethacrylate granules (PMMA). These products normally come in a gel formulation that can inject fine needles into the deeper layers of the skin and soft tissue under the face.
Collagen injections are no longer given because some patients have allergic reactions, including some severe allergic reactions. Complications may occur in facial fillings and especially in permanent fillings.
Doctors urge their patients to check and learn about the ingredients of the filling and discuss the likely outcomes of the surgery before proceeding with a procedure. The U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has warned that rare but serious problems could occur if someone accidentally injected soft tissue fillers into facial blood vessels.
Fat injections and fat grafting.
They have wide applications in cosmetic surgery. Surgeons use liposuction to take the patient’s own fat from a part of the body and inject them into the areas that need volume expansion.
It is then injected and applied to different areas of the face, including the lips, hands and on skin contour depressions. The results are safe and long lasting and may also have the advantage of removing fat from an unwanted part of the body.
The fat is removed, washed and purified, and then carefully re-injected with specially designed needles.
Sometimes the procedure needs to be repeated several times for best results.
Stem cell enriched fat grafts.
Scientists have tested this approach for reconstructive surgery and suggested that the procedure is safe and effective, with promising results.
However, tumor growth can theoretically be a negative effect, so we need more research before stem cells can become a central theme in plastic and reconstructive surgery.
Laser Skin Resurfacing.
Also known as facial laser therapy or laser skin therapy, lasers and light-based facials can help reduce fine lines, wrinkles, and abnormal pigmentation such as sunspots. The treatment uses concentrated, pulsating beams of light.
Various types of lasers are used, varying in aggressiveness and downtime. It may take several sessions to see results.
Surgery can restore hair growth in people with hair loss. Hair transplantation is a type of cosmetic surgery. It can help renew the growth of hair follicles. Surgeons take small hair follicle grafts from the back of the scalp where the hair is denser. Then, they transfer it to the hair transplant areas with small incisions on the scalp that were maximally affected by hair loss.
Patients may require multiple sessions to achieve desired results. After 6 weeks, the transplanted hair falls out, but new hair grows after about 3 months.
This article and the information contained within it are for educational purposes only. It is not be construed or used as a medical opinion or a medical advice. This article is not intended to replace the advice of a trained, licensed medical professional in your area. If you're living in and around Kolkata, you may consult one of the foremost plastic surgeons of India by contacting his plastic surgery clinics.